ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON

MAHARISHI'S TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION

AND TM-SIDHI PROGRAM

VOLUME 1

ORME-JOHNSON, D. W., and FARROW, J. T., eds. 1977. Scientific research on the Transcendental Meditation program: Collected papers, vol. 1. Rheinweiler, W. Germany: MERU Press.

PART I: PHYSIOLOGY

The Studies in the First Two Sections Document Changes during the Practice of the Transcendental Meditation Technique Unless Otherwise Stated.

A: Metabolic Changes

1. WALLACE, R. K. Physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation. Science 167: 1751-1754, 1970.

Indications of Deep Rest along with Wakeful, Ordered State of Brain Functioning: Decreased Metabolic Rate (Decreased Oxygen Consumption and Unchanged Respiratory Quotient); Decreased Minute Ventilation; Decreased Heart Rate; Increased Basal Skin Resistance; Increased Regularity and Intensity of EEG Alpha Activity.

2. WALLACE, R. K. The physiological effects of Transcendental Meditation: A proposed fourth major state of consciousness. Doctoral thesis, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., 1970.

Indications of Deep Rest along with Wakeful, Ordered State of Brain Functioning: Decreased Metabolic Rate (Decreased Oxygen Consumption and Decreased Carbon Dioxide Elimination); Normal Arterial Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressures; Decreased Respiration Rate; Decreased Heart Rate; Increased Basal Skin Resistance; Increased Regularity and Intensity of EEG Alpha Activity in Frontal and Central Regions. Reduction in Biochemical Index of Stress: Decreased Arterial Lactate Levels. Self-Reported Improvements in Physical and Mental Health, and Resistance to Disease.

3. WALLACE, R. K., et al. A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. American Journal of Physiology 221: 795-799, 1971.

Indications of Deep Rest along with Wakeful, Ordered State of Brain Functioning: Decreased Metabolic Rate (Decreased Oxygen Consumption and Decreased Carbon Dioxide Elimination); Normal Arterial Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressures; Decreased Respiration Rate; Decreased Minute Ventilation; Decreased Heart Rate; Increased Basal Skin Resistance; Increased Regularity and Intensity of EEG Alpha Activity in Frontal and Central Regions; Episodes of Rhythmical EEG Theta Activity in Frontal Region. Reduction in Biochemical Index of Stress: Decreased Arterial Lactate Levels.

4. WALLACE, R. K., et al. The physiology of meditation. Scientific American 226: 84-90, 1972.

Indications of Deep Rest along with Wakeful, Ordered State of Brain Functioning: Decreased Metabolic Rate (Decreased Oxygen Consumption and Decreased Carbon Dioxide Elimination); Normal Arterial Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressures; Decreased Respiration Rate; Decreased Minute Ventilation; Decreased Heart Rate; Increased Skin Resistance; Increased Regularity and Intensity of EEG Alpha Activity in Frontal and Central Regions. Reduction in Biochemical Index of Stress: Decreased Arterial Lactate Levels.

5. ALLISON, J. Respiratory changes during Transcendental Meditation. Lancet 7651: 833, 1970.

Indication of Deep Rest: Decreased Respiration Rate.

6. COREY, P. W. Airway conductance and oxygen consumption changes associated with practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. University of Colorado Medical Center, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A., 1973.

Increased Ease of Breathing: Increased Airway Conductance. Indications of Deep Rest: Decreased Metabolic Rate (Decreased Oxygen Consumption and Decreased Carbon Dioxide Elimination); Decreased Heart Rate. Maintenance of a Relaxed Style of Physiological Functioning Outside of Meditation: Lower Basal Metabolic Rate after Meditation.

7. FARROW, J. T. Physiological changes associated with transcendental consciousness, the state of least excitation of consciousness. Psychophysiology Laboratory, Centre for the Study of Higher States of Consciousness, Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland, 1975.

Experience of Transcendental Consciousness Associated with: High EEG Coherence in the Theta, Alpha, and Beta Bands; Episodes of Spontaneous Breath Suspension (Not Followed by Hyperventilation); Marked Reductions in Respiration Rate, Minute Ventilation, Metabolic Rate (Oxygen Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Elimination), and Heart Rate; Increased Basal Skin Resistance; Cessation of Spontaneous Skin Resistance Response.

8. HEBERT, J. R. Periodic suspension of respiration during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Psychophysiology Laboratory, Centre for the Study of Higher States of Consciousness, Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland, 1976.

Maximum State of Deep Rest: Episodes of Spontaneous Breath Suspension (Not Followed by Hyperventilation).

9. DHANARAJ, V. H., and SINGH, M. Reduction in metabolic rate during the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Doctoral thesis of first author (summary), Department of Physical Education, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Paper presented at the first Canadian Congress for Multidisciplinary Study of Sport and Physical Activity, Quebec, Canada, October 1973.

Indications of Deep Rest: Decreased Metabolic Rate (Decreased Oxygen Consumption and Unchanged Respiratory Quotient); Decreased Tidal Volume; Decreased Respiration Rate.

10. BAKKER, R. Decreased respiratory rate during the Transcendental Meditation technique: A replication. Department of Biology, California State College at Sonoma, Sonoma, California, U.S.A., 1974.

Indication of Deep Rest: Decreased Respiration Rate.

11. LEVANDER, V. L., et al. Increased forearm blood flow during a wakeful hypometabolic state. Federation Proceedings 31: 405 (Abstract), 1972.

Small Increase in Forearm Blood Flow.

12. JEVNING, R.; WILSON, A.; VANDERLAAN, E.; and LEVINE, S. Plasma prolactin and cortisol during Transcendental Meditation. Findings previously published in The Endocrine Society Program 57th Annual Meeting, New York City, 18-20 June 1975, p. 257 (Abstract).

Reduction in Biochemical Index of Stress: Decreased Plasma Cortisol Levels. Small Increase in Plasma Prolactin Immediately following Transcendental Meditation.

13. JEVNING, R.; WILSON, A. F.; and SMITH, W. R. Plasma amino acids during the Transcendental Meditation technique: Comparison to sleep. Findings previously published in Sleep research, vol. 4, ed. M. H. Chase, W. C. Stern, and P. L. Walter, pp. 79-80 (Abstract). Los Angeles: Brain Information Service, Brain Research Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., 1975.

Increased Plasma Phenylalanine Levels.

B: Electrophysiological and Electroencephalographic Changes

14. BANQUET, J. P. EEG and meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 33: 454 (Abstract), 1972.

EEG Indications of Restful Alertness: Coexistence of Theta and Delta with Alpha and Beta EEG Activity. Increased Orderliness and Integration of Brain Functioning: Hypersynchrony and Rhythmicity; Synchronization of Anterior and Posterior Channels; Periods of Uniformity of Frequency and Amplitude from All Leads.

15. BANQUET, J. P. Spectral analysis of the EEG in meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 35: 143-151, 1973.

Increased Orderliness and Integration of Brain Functioning: High Amplitude EEG Alpha Activity Extending to Anterior Channels; Bursts of High Amplitude Theta Activity in All Channels; Rhythmic High Amplitude Beta Activity in All Channels; Synchronization of Anterior and Posterior Channels. Electromyographic Evidence of Deep Muscular Relaxation.

16. WESTCOTT, M. Hemispheric symmetry of the EEG during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Department of Psychology, University of Durham, Durham, England, 1973.

Increased Orderliness and Integration of Brain Functioning: High Levels of Interhemispheric EEG Alpha Correlation; Greater Power Balance between Right and Left Hemispheres.

17. BANQUET, J. P., and SAILHAN, M. EEG analysis of spontaneous and induced states of consciousness. Revue d'Electroencéphalographie et de Neurophysiologie Clinique 4: 445-453, 1974.

EEG Indications of Restful Alertness: Less Activation (Decreased Proportion of Beta to Alpha); Greater Wakefulness (Increased Proportion of Alpha to Delta). Increased Orderliness and Integration of Brain Functioning: Greater Interhemispheric and Intrahemispheric EEG Synchrony.

18. KRAS, D. J. The Transcendental Meditation technique and EEG alpha activity. Department of Psychology, Stirling University, Stirling, Scotland, 1974.

EEG Indications of Restful Alertness: Increased Alpha Activity in All Areas of the Brain. Maintenance of a More Relaxed Style of Physiological Functioning Outside of Meditation: Persistence of Greater Alpha Activity following Meditation.

19. BANQUET, J. P., and SAILHAN, M. Quantified EEG spectral analysis of sleep and Transcendental Meditation. Stanley Cobb Laboratories for Psychiatric Research, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., and Institut La Rochefoucauld, Paris, France. Paper presented at the Second European Congress on Sleep Research, Rome, Italy, 10 April 1974.

EEG Indications of Inner Wakefulness during Sleep.

20. LEVINE, P. H.; HEBERT, J. R.; HAYNES, C. T.; and STROBEL, U. EEG coherence during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Psychophysiology Laboratory, Centre for the Study of Higher States of Consciousness, Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland, 1976.

Increased Orderliness and Integration of Brain Functioning: Increased EEG Coherence Especially in Alpha and Theta Bands.

21. HAYNES, C. T.; HEBERT, J. R.; REBER, W.; and ORME-JOHNSON, D. W. The psychophysiology of advanced participants in the Transcendental Meditation program: Correlations of EEG coherence, creativity, H-reflex recovery, and experience of transcendental consciousness. Psychophysiology Laboratory, Centre for the Study of Higher States of Consciousness, Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland, 1976.

Correlations between High EEG Coherence, High Levels of Creativity, Enhanced Neurological Efficiency (Faster H-Reflex Recovery), and Clarity of Experiences of Transcendental Consciousness.

22. JANBY, J. Immediate effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique: Increased skin resistance during first meditation after instruction. Institute of Psychology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark, 1973.

Indication of Deep Relaxation: Marked Increase in Basal Skin Resistance.

23. LAURIE, G. An investigation into the changes in skin resistance during the Transcendental Meditation technique. Department of Psychology, Portsmouth Polytechnic, Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, 1973.

Indication of Deep Relaxation: Marked Increase in Basal Skin Resistance.

24. WEST, M. A. Changes in skin resistance in subjects resting, reading, listening to music, or practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. University College of Swansea, University of Wales, Swansea, Wales, 1973.

Indication of Deep Relaxation: Marked Increase in Basal Skin Resistance.

C: Physiological Efficiency and Stability

25. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine 35: 341-349, 1973.

Improved Resistance to Stress and Greater Autonomic Stability: Faster Habituation of Skin Resistance Response to Stressful Stimuli; Fewer Multiple Responses; Fewer Spontaneous Skin Resistance Responses.

26. WILCOX, G. G. Autonomic functioning in subjects practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. School of Applied Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 1973.

Improved Resistance to Stress and Greater Autonomic Stability: Faster Habituation of Skin Resistance Response to Stressful Stimuli; Fewer Spontaneous Skin Resistance Responses.

27. BERKER, E. Stability of skin resistance responses one week after instruction in the Transcendental Meditation technique. Department of Biology, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida, U.S.A., 1974.

Improved Resistance to Stress and Greater Autonomic Stability: Faster Habituation of Skin Resistance Response to Stressful Stimuli; Fewer Spontaneous Skin Resistance Responses.

28. SMITH, T. R. The Transcendental Meditation technique and skin resistance response to loud tones. Department of Psychology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan, U.S.A., 1974.

Improved Resistance to Stress and Greater Autonomic Stability: Faster Habituation of Skin Resistance Response to Stressful Stimuli.

29. WILLIAMS, P., and WEST, M. EEG responses to photic stimulation in persons experienced at meditation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 39: 519-522, 1975.

EEG Indications of Greater Alertness (in Response to Photic Stimulation).

30. ROUTT, T. J. Low normal heart and respiration rates in individuals practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. Department of Psychology, Huxley College of Environmental Studies, Western Washington State College, Bellingham, Washington, U.S.A., 1973.

Increased Basal Skin Resistance during Transcendental Meditation. Maintenance of a Relaxed Style of Physiological Functioning outside the Practice of Transcendental Meditation: Lower Heart Rate; Lower Respiration Rate.

31. MCDONAGH, J. M., and EGENES, T. The Transcendental Meditation technique and temperature homeostasis. Department of Psychology, St. Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana, U.S.A., 1973.

Enhanced Temperature Homeostasis: Faster Recovery of Normal Skin Temperature following Exertion.

D: Health

32. WALLACE, R. K., et al. Decreased blood pressure in hypertensive subjects who practiced meditation. Supplement II to Circulation 45 and 46: 516 (Abstract), 1972.

Improvements in Hypertensive Subjects: Decreased Blood Pressure.

33. BLACKWELL, B.; HANENSON, I. B.; BLOOMFIELD, S. S.; MAGENHEIM, H. G.; NIDICH, S. I.; and GARTSIDE, P. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on blood pressure: A controlled pilot experiment. Psychosomatic Medicine 37(1): 86 (Abstract), 1976.

Improvements in Hypertensive Subjects: Decreased Blood Pressure; Decreased Anxiety.

34. SIMON, D. B.; OPARIL, S.; and KIMBALL, C. P. The Transcendental Meditation program and essential hypertension. Hypertension Clinic and Department of Psychiatry, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., 1974.

Improvements in Hypertensive Subjects: Decreased Blood Pressure. Improvements in Patients with Angina Pectoris: Improved Exercise Tolerance; Increased Maximum Workload; Delayed Appearance of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities during Exercise (Delayed Onset of ST Segment Depression); Decreased Double Product; Clinical Observations of Decreased Anxiety; Decreased Need for Tranquillizers and Anti-Anginal Drugs; Improved Sleeping Patterns; Improved Personal Relationships.

35. ZAMARRA, J. W. ; BESSEGHINI, I.: and WITTENBERG, S. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on the exercise performance of patients with angina pectoris. Department of Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, New York, U.S.A., and Buffalo Veterans Administration Hospital, Buffalo, New York, U.S.A., 1975.

Improvements in Patients with Angina Pectoris; Improved Exercise Tolerance; Increased Maximum Workload; Delayed Appearance of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities during Exercise (Delayed Onset of ST Segment Depression); Decreased Double Product; Clinical Observations of Decreased Anxiety; Decreased Need for Tranquillizers and Anti-Anginal Drugs; Improved Sleeping Patterns; Improved Personal Relationships.

36. HONSBERGER, R. W., and WILSON, A. F. The effect of Transcendental Meditation upon bronchial asthma. Clinical Research 21: 278 (Abstract), 1973.

Improvements in Patients with Bronchial Asthma: Decreased Severity of Symptoms Reported by Patients and Physicians; Reduced Airway Resistance.

37. HONSBERGER, R. W., and WILSON, A. F. Transcendental Meditation in treating asthma. Respiratory Therapy: The Journal of Inhalation Technology 3: 79-80, 1973.

Improvements in Patients with Bronchial Asthma: Decreased Severity of Symptoms; Reduced Airway Resistance.

38. WILSON, A. F.; HONSBERGER, R. W.; CHIU, J. T.; and NOVEY, H. S. Transcendental Meditation and asthma. Respiration 32: 74-80, 1975.

Improvements in Patients with Bronchial Asthma: Decreased Severity of Symptoms Reported by Patients and Physicians; Reduced Airway Resistance.

39. KLEMONS, I. M. Changes in inflammation in persons practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. Department of Health Education, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 1972.

Improved Periodontal Health: Decreased Gingival Inflammation.

40. MISKIMAN, D. E. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation program on compensatory paradoxical sleep. Graduate Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1972.

Faster Recovery from Sleep Deprivation.

41. MISKIMAN, D. E. The treatment of insomnia by the Transcendental Meditation program. Graduate Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1972.

Relief from Insomnia: Decreased Time Taken to Fall Asleep.

42. MISKIMAN, D. E. Long-term effects of the Transcendental Meditation program in the treatment of insomnia. Graduate Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1975.

Relief from Insomnia: Decreased Time Taken to Fall Asleep (Benefits Sustained over Time).

43. MCINTYRE, M. E.; SILVERMAN, F. H.; and TROTTER, W. D. Transcendental Meditation and stuttering: A preliminary report. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 294 (Abstract), 1974.

Decreased Stuttering.

44. WELDON, J. T., and ARON, A. The Transcendental Meditation program and normalization of weight. Department of Psychology, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1974.

Normalization of Weight.

E: Motor and Perceptual Ability, and Athletic Performance

45. SHAW, R., and KOLB, D. Reaction time following the Transcendental Meditation technique. Graduate Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, U.S.A., 1971.

Improved Mind-Body Co-ordination: Faster Reactions.

46. APPELLE, S., and OSWALD, L. E. Simple reaction time as a function of alertness and prior mental activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills 38: 1263-1268, 1974.

Improved Mind-Body Co-ordination: Faster Reactions.

47. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; KOLB, D.; and HEBERT, J. R. An experimental analysis of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on reaction time. International Center for Scientific Research, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1973.

Improved Mind-Body Co-ordination: Faster Reactions.

48. BLASDELL, K. S. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique upon a complex perceptual-motor task. Department of Kinesiology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., 1971.

Improved Mind-Body Co-ordination: Superior Perceptual-Motor Performance.

49. RIMOL, A. G. P. The Transcendental Meditation technique and its effects on sensory-motor performance. Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A., 1974.

Improved Mind-Body Co-ordination: Short- and Long-Term Improvements in Complex Sensory-Motor Performance.

50. PIROT, M. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique upon auditory discrimination. Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, 1973.

Increased Perceptual Acuity: Improved Auditory Temporal Discrimination.

51. PELLETIER, K. R. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 1031-1034, 1974.

Increased Field Independence (Growth of a Stable Internal Frame of Reference, Increased Perceptual Acuity).

52. PELLETIER, K. R. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on perceptual style: Increased field independence. Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Paper presented at the meeting of the Western Psychological Association, San Francisco, California, 25-28 April 1974.

Increased Field Independence (Growth of a Stable Internal Frame of Reference, Increased Perceptual Acuity).

53. REDDY, M. K.; BAI, A. J. L.; and RAO, V. R. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on athletic performance. A.P. Sports Council, Lal Bahadar Stadium, and Nilouffer Hospital Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, 1974.

Benefits for Athletes: Improved Physiological Functioning--Improved Cardiovascular Efficiency; Improved Respiratory Efficiency (Increased Vital Capacity); Reduction of Blood Pressure to More Ideal Levels; Increased Hemoglobin Concentration. Improved Athletic Performance and Neuromuscular Integration: Increased Running Speed; Improved Standing Broad Jump; Improved Agility; Faster Reactions and Improved Co-ordination. Increased Intelligence.

PART II: PSYCHOLOGY

A: Intelligence, Learning, and Academic Performance

54. TJOA, A. Some evidence that the Transcendental Meditation program increases intelligence and reduces neuroticism as measured by psychological tests. G.I.T.P., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1972.

Benefits for High School Students: Decreased Neuroticism; Greater Intelligence Growth Rate: Increased Fluid Intelligence.

55. TJOA, A. Increased intelligence and reduced neuroticism through the Transcendental Meditation program. Findings previously published as "Meditation, neuroticism and intelligence: A follow-up" in Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie (Behavior: Journal of Psychology) 3: 167-182, 1975.

Increased Fluid Intelligence; Decreased Neuroticism; Decreased Somatic Neurotic Instability.

56. ABRAMS, A. I. Paired-associate learning and recall: A pilot study of the Transcendental Meditation program. Graduate Department of Education, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, U.S.A., 1972.

Benefits for University Students: Quicker Acquisition of Information (Better Learning Ability); Superior Recall.

57. MISKIMAN, D. E. Performance on a learning task by subjects who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique. Graduate Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1972.

Benefits for University Students: Superior Learning Ability.

58. MISKIMAN, D. E. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation program on the organization of thinking and recall (secondary organization). Graduate Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1973.

Benefits for University Students: Improved Spontaneous Organization of Memory; Improved Stabilization of Organized Memory; Improved Problem-Solving Ability.

59. COLLIER, R. W. The effect of the Transcendental Meditation program upon university academic attainment. Department of English as a Second Language, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A., 1973.

Benefits for University Students: Improved Academic Performance.

60. HEATON, D. P., and ORME-JOHNSON, D. W. The Transcendental Meditation program and academic achievement. International Center for Scientific Research, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1974.

Benefits for University Students: Improved Academic Performance.

61. CORY, R., and HUFNAGEL, P. The effect of the Science of Creative Intelligence course on high school students: A preliminary report. American Foundation for the Science of Creative Intelligence, Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.A., 1974.

Benefits for High School Students: Improved Academic Performance; Reduced State and Trait Anxiety.

62. SHECTER, H. The Transcendental Meditation program in the classroom: A psychological evaluation. Doctoral thesis (summary), Graduate Department of Psychology, York University, North York, Ontario, Canada, Dissertation Abstracts International 38 (07) (1977): 3372B.

Benefits for High School Students: Improved Intellectual Performance (Increased Problem Solving Ability); Increased Creativity; Increased Energy Level; Increased Innovation, Autonomy, and Independence; Increased Self-Esteem; Increased Tolerance; Increased Ability to Deal with Abstract and Complex Situations; Decreased Anxiety.

63. MACCALLUM, M. J. The Transcendental Meditation program and creativity. Graduate Department of Psychology, California State University at Long Beach, Long Beach, California, U.S.A., 1974.

Greater Creativity: Greater Fluency, Flexibility, and Originality of Creative Thought.

B: Development of Personality

64. SEEMAN, W.; NIDICH, S.; and BANTA, T. Influence of Transcendental Meditation on a measure of self-actualization. Journal of Counseling Psychology 19: 184-187, 1972.

(Increased Self-Actualization: Increased Inner-Directedness (Independence, Self-Supportiveness)1; Increased Spontaneity; Enhanced Self-Regard.

65. FEHR, T.; NERSTHEIMER, U.; and TORBER, S. Study of personality changes resulting from the Transcendental Meditation program: Freiburger Personality Inventory. Department of Social Affairs, MlU/Forschungsring Schopferische Intelligenz, Dormagen, W. Germany, 1972.

Less Nervousness (Less Psychosomatic Disturbance); Less Aggressiveness (Greater Self-Control, Greater Emotional Maturity); Less Depression (Greater Contentment, Greater Self-Confidence); Less Irritability (Greater Calm in Frustrating Situations, Greater Tolerance); Greater Sociability (Greater Friendliness, Greater Liveliness); Greater Placidity (Greater Self-Assuredness, More Good Humor, Less Tendency to Procrastinate); Less Tendency to Dominate (Greater Respectfulness); Less Inhibition (Greater Naturalness, Greater Spontaneity, Greater Self-Sufficiency); Less Neuroticism (Greater Emotional Stability, Less Tension); Greater Self-Reliance (Greater Effectiveness, More Balanced Mood, Greater Vigor).

66. STEK, R. J., and BASS, B. A. Personal adjustment and perceived locus of control among students interested in meditation. Psychological Reports 32: 1019-1022, 1973.

Interest in Learning Transcendental Meditation Found to Be Uncorrelated with Personality Factors.

67. BERG, W. P. VAN DEN, and MULDER, B. Psychological research on the effects of the Transcendental Meditation technique on a number of personality variables. Findings previously published in Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie (Behavior: Journal of Psychology) 4: 206-218, 1976 . See also DIJK, H. VAN, and BERG, W. P. VAN DEN. Begripsvaliditeit van de NPV-Zelfwaarde-Ringsschaal. Heymans Bulletins, Psychologische lnstituten R.U., Groningen, the Netherlands, NR: HB-74-147 Ex.

Less Neuroticism; Greater Self-Esteem; Better Self-Image; Greater Ego Strength; Greater Trust; Greater Satisfaction; Greater Self-Actualization; Less Sensitivity to Criticism; Less Depression; Decreased Sense of Physical Inadequacy.

68. NIDICH, S.; SEEMAN, W.; and SEIBERT, M. Influence of the Transcendental Meditation program on state anxiety. Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A., 1973.

Decreased Anxiety.

69. HJELLE, L. A. Transcendental Meditation and psychological health. Perceptual and Motor Skills 39: 623-628, 1974.

Increased Self-Actualization: Increases in--Time Competence (Ability to Live More Fully in the Present, Ability to Connect Past and Present Meaningfully); Inner-Directedness (Independence, Self-Supportiveness); Self-Actualizing Value (Holding of Values of Self-Actualizing People); Feeling Reactivity (Sensitivity to One's Own Needs and Feelings); Spontaneity; Self-Regard; Capacity for Intimate Contact (Capacity for Warm Interpersonal Relationships). Greater Inner Locus of Control; Less Anxiety.

70. NIDICH, S.; SEEMAN, W.; and DRESKIN, T. Influence of Transcendental Meditation on Self-Actualization: A replication. Journal of Counseling Psychology 20: 565-566, 1973.

Increased Self-Actualization: Increases in--Time Competence (Ability to Live More Fully in the Present, Ability to Connect Past, Present, and Future Meaningfully); Inner-Directedness (Independence, Self-Supportiveness); Self-Actualizing Value (Holding of Values of Self-Actualizing People); Feeling Reactivity (Sensitivity to One's Own Needs and Feelings); Spontaneity; Self-Acceptance; Capacity for Intimate Contact (Capacity for Warm Interpersonal Relationships).

71. PENNER, W. J.; ZINGLE, H. W.; DYCK, R.; and TRUCH, S. Does an in-depth Transcendental Meditation course effect change in the personalities of the participants? Western Psychologist 4: 104-111, 1974.

Greater Interest in Academic Activities; Greater Intellectual Orientation; Greater Aestheticism; Greater Respect for Traditional Religious Values; Greater Adaptability of Mental Orientation; Greater Autonomy; Greater Social Extroversion; Less Impulsiveness; Greater Personal Integration (Decreased Social Alienation and Emotional Disturbance); Lower Anxiety Level; Greater Altruism.

72. DAVIES, J. The Transcendental Meditation program and progressive relaxation: Comparative effects on trait anxiety and self-actualization. Department of Psychology, University of New England at Armidale, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia, 1974.

Increased Self-Actualization: Increased Inner-Directedness/Time Competence. Increased Feeling Reactivity (Increased Sensitivity to One's Own Needs and Feelings). Reduced Trait Anxiety.

73. SCHILLING, P. B. The effect of the regular practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique on behavior and personality. Department of Clinical Psychology, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, Kentucky, U.S.A., 1974.

Decreased Aggression (Increases in: Tactfulness, Calmness, Easygoingness, Forgiveness, and Consideration; Decreases in: Argumentativeness, Irritability, and Threatening Behavior); Improved Leadership Ability; Growth of a More Brave, Adventurous, Action-Oriented Nature; Increased Affiliation (Increases in: Enjoyment of Friends, Maintenance of Associations with Others, Warmth, Neighborliness, and Co-operativeness); Increased Nurturance (Increases in: Need to Give Sympathy and Assistance to Others, Protectiveness, and Consideration for Others); Decreased Use of Drugs; Decreased Use of Alcohol.

74. SHAPIRO, J. The relationship of the Transcendental Meditation program to self-actualization and negative personality characteristics. Doctoral thesis (summary), Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., 1974.

Increased Self-Actualization; Decreased Depression; Decreased Neuroticism; Decreased Aggression; Decreased Anxiety.

75. STERN, M. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on trait anxiety. Department of Education, Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A., 1974.

Decreased General Anxiety.

76. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W., and DUCK, B. Psychological testing of MIU students: First report. Department of Psychology, Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland, and International Center for Scientific Research, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1974.

Greater Self-Actualization in Students at Maharishi International University than in Other College Students: Greater--Time Competence (Ability to Live More Fully in the Present, Ability to Connect Past and Present Meaningfully); Inner-Directedness (Independence, Self-Supportiveness); Self-Actualizing Value (Holding of Values of Self-Actualizing People); Spontaneity; Self-Regard; Nature of Man is Constructive (Ability to See Man as Essentially Good); Synergy (Ability to See Opposites of Life as Meaningfully Related); Capacity for Intimate Contact (Capacity for Warm Interpersonal Relationships).

77. FEHR, T. A longitudinal study of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation program on changes in personality. Department of Social Affairs, MlU/Forschungsring Schöperische lntelligenz, Dormagen, W. Germany, 1974.

Decreased Nervousness (Decreased Psychosomatic Disturbance); Decreased Aggressiveness (Increased Self-Control, Increased Emotional Maturity); Decreased Depression (Increased Contentment, Increased Self-Confidence); Decreased Irritability (Increased Calm in Frustrating Situations, Increased Tolerance); Increased Sociability (Increased Friendliness, Increased Liveliness); Increased Placidity (Increased Self-Assuredness, Increased Good Humor, Decreased Tendency to Procrastinate); Decreased Tendency to Dominate (Increased Flexibility, Respectfulness, and Tolerance); Decreased Inhibition (Increases in: Naturalness, Spontaneity, Self-Sufficiency); Increased Extroversion (Increased Capacity for Warm Interpersonal Relationships); Decreased Neuroticism (Increased Emotional Stability, Decreased Tension); Increased Self-Reliance (Increased Effectiveness, More Balanced Mood, Increased Vigor).

78. FERGUSON, P. C., and GOWAN, J. C. Psychological findings on Transcendental Meditation. Also published as "TM--some preliminary psychological findings" in Journal of Humanistic Psychology 16(3): 51-60, 1976.

Increased Self-Actualization; Decreased Anxiety; Decreased Depression; Decreased Neuroticism.

PART III: SOCIOLOGY

A: Rehabilitation

79. WINQUIST, W. T. The Transcendental Meditation program and drug abuse: A retrospective study. Department of Sociology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., 1969.

Decreased Drug Abuse.

80. WALLACE, R. K., et al. Decreased drug abuse with Transcendental Meditation: A study of 1,862 subjects. In Drug Abuse: Proceedings of the International Conference, ed. Chris J. D. Zarafonetis, pp. 369-376. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1972.

Decreased Drug Abuse; Decreased Use of Alcohol; Decreased Use of Cigarettes; Decreased Drug Selling; Increased Tendency to Discourage the Use of Drugs by Others.

81. BRAUTIGAM, E. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on drug abusers: A prospective study. Department of Psychology, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden, 1972.

Increased Psychological Stability; Increased Adjustment (Increased Self-Acceptance, Satisfaction, and Ability to Handle One's Situation); Decreased Anxiety; Decreased Tension; Decreased Psycho-Motor Retardation; Decreased Drug Abuse.

82. SHAFII, M.; LAVELY, R. A.; and JAFFE, R. D. Meditation and marijuana. American Journal of Psychiatry 131: 60-63, 1974.

Decreased Drug Abuse.

83. SHAFII, M.; LAVELY, R. A.; and JAFFE, R. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry 132: 942-945, 1975.

Decreased Use of Alcohol.

84. LAZAR, Z.; FARWELL, L.; and FARROW, J. T. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on anxiety, drug abuse, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. Graduate School of Education, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.; Department of Social Relations, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.A.; and Graduate Department of Biochemistry, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1972.

Decreased Anxiety; Decreased Use of Cigarettes; Decreased Use of Alcohol; Decreased Drug Abuse.

85. KATZ, D. Decreased drug use and prevention of drug use through the Transcendental Meditation program. International Center for Scientific Research, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1974.

Decreased Use of Alcohol; Decreased Drug Abuse.

86. SCHENKLUHN, H., and GEISLER, M. A longitudinal study of the influence of the Transcendental Meditation program on drug abuse. Drug Rehabilitation Center of Arbeiterwohlfahrt Kreisverband, Mülheim/Ruhr, W. Germany, 1974.

Decreased Drug Abuse.

87. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; KIEHLBAUCH, J.; MOORE, R.; and BRISTOL, J. Personality and autonomic changes in prisoners practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique. University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, U.S.A., 1971.

Rehabilitation of Prisoners: Increased Physiological Stability and Psychological Adaptability--Fewer Spontaneous Skin Resistance Responses; Decreased Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior (Increased Behavioral Flexibility); Decreased Social Introversion (Increased Social Ease and Outgoingness).

88. CUNNINGHAM, M., and KOCH, W. The Transcendental Meditation program and rehabilitation: A pilot project at the Federal Correctional Institution at Lompoc, California. International Meditation Society, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., 1973.

Rehabilitation of Prisoners: Decreased Anxiety; Other Improvements in Mental Health.

89. BALLOU, D. The Transcendental Meditation program at Stillwater Prison. Graduate Department of Social Anthropology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A., 1973.

Rehabilitation of Prisoners: Decreased Anxiety; Decreased Prison Disciplinary Rule Infractions; Fewer Parole Violations; Increased Participation in Recreational and Educational Activities; Decreased Drug Abuse.

90. CHILDS, J. P. The use of the Transcendental Meditation program as a therapy with juvenile offenders. Doctoral dissertation (abbr.), Department of Educational Psychology and Guidance, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.A., 1973. Dissertation Abstracts International 34/08-A, 1973, Order Number AAD74-03806.

Rehabilitation of Juvenile Offenders: Decreased Anxiety; Positive Change as Reported by Both Subjects and Parents; Decreased Drug Abuse; Decreased Court Problems; Increased Happiness; Improved Interpersonal Relationships; Increased Self-Actualization; Enhanced Self-Regard.

91. NIDICH, S. I. A study of the relationship of the Transcendental Meditation program to Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning. Doctoral thesis (abbr.), Department of Learning and Development, College of Education, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A., 1975. Dissertation Abstracts International 36: 4361a-4362a, 1975.

Greater Moral Maturity.

92. ROSS, J. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on anxiety, neuroticism, and psychoticism. Master's thesis, Graduate Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1972.

Decreased Anxiety; Decreased Neuroticism; Decreased Psychoticism.

93. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; ARTHUR, G. K.; FRANKLIN, L.; and O'CONNELL, J. The Transcendental Meditation technique and drug abuse counselors. Department of Research and Evaluation, Drug and Alcohol Abuse Control and Prevention Program, Fort Bliss, Texas, U.S.A., 1972.

Improvements in Mental Health: Decreased Anxiety; Decreased Hypochondria; Decreased Internal Conflicts and Confusion; Increased Clarity of Mind, Relaxation, Energy Level, and Sensitivity to Others.

94. DICK, L. D., and RAGLAND, R. E. A study of the Transcendental Meditation program in the service of counseling. Departments of Psychology and Education, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, U.S.A., 1973.

Increased Self-Actualization: Increased Time Competence (Ability to Live More Fully in the Present, Ability to Connect Past, Present, and Future Meaningfully); Increased Inner-Directedness (Independence, Self-Supportiveness); Increased Existentiality (Flexibility in Application of Self-Actualizing Values); Enhanced Self-Regard; Increased Self-Acceptance.

95. BLOOMFIELD, H. H. Some observations on the uses of the Transcendental Meditation program in psychiatry. Institute of Psychophysiological Medicine, San Diego, California, U.S.A., 1975.

Case Histories Illustrating Benefits in the Treatment of Psychiatric Patients with a Variety of Disorders, Including Anxiety Neurosis, Obsessive-Compulsive Neurosis, Depression, Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Psychosomatic Disorders, and Chronic Insomnia.

B: Productivity and Quality of Life

96. FREW, D. R. Transcendental Meditation and productivity. Academy of Management Journal 17: 362-368, 1974. A version of this study and a second study replicating the results can be found in David R. Frew, Management of Stress: Using TM at Work. Chicago: Nelson-Hall Press, 1977.

Increased Productivity: Improved Work Performance; Increased Work Satisfaction; Improved Relations with Co-Workers; Improved Relations with Supervisors; Decreased Turnover Propensity; Decreased Self-Report Climb Orientation/Increased Climb Orientation as Reported by Co-Workers and Supervisors.

97. FRIEND, K. E. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on work attitudes and behavior. Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A., 1975.

Improved Work Performance; Increased Work Satisfaction; Improved Relations with Co-Workers; Improved Relations with Supervisors.

98. BORLAND, C., and LANDRITH III, G. Improved quality of city life through the Transcendental Meditation program: Decreased crime rate. Department of Educational Psychology, Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland, and Department of Psychology, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa, U.S.A., 1976.

Improved Quality of City Life: Decreased Crime Rate (U.S.A., 1973).

PART IV: THEORETICAL PAPERS

99. DOMASH, L. H. The Transcendental Meditation technique and quantum physics: Is pure consciousness a macroscopic quantum state in the brain? Department of Physics, Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland, 1975.

In this contribution, the data of many of the preceding papers are organized into a theory of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Intended mainly for an audience of physicists, this paper should be of interest to psychologists, physiologists, and philosophers as well. The author interprets the pure consciousness state induced by the Transcendental Meditation technique in terms of quantum physics as a zero-entropy vacuum state, and puts forward the hypothesis that a form of superconductivity in the brain may underlie its physiology.

100. ORME-JOHNSON, D. The dawn of the Age of Enlightenment: Experimental evidence that the Transcendental Meditation technique produces a fourth and a fifth state of consciousness in the individual and a profound influence of orderliness in society. Department of Psychology, Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland, 1976.

A review of scientific data shows that a fourth state of consciousness is reached through the Transcendental Meditation program. It is seen that repeated experience of this state develops a fifth state of consciousness, cosmic consciousness or enlightenment, in which behavior is spontaneously "in accord with all the laws of nature."

101. WALLACE, R. K. Neurophysiology of enlightenment. Paper presented at the 26th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, New Delhi, India, October 1974. Livingston Manor, New York: MIU Press, 1974.

This contribution outlines the broad historical implications of scientific research on the Transcendental Meditation program for developing enlightened individuals, an enlightened society, cultural integrity, and world peace.

PART V: THE TM-SIDHI PROGRAM2

102. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W.; CLEMENTS, G.; HAYNES, C. T.; and BADAWI, K. Higher states of consciousness: EEG coherence, creativity, and experiences of the sidhis. Centre for the Study of Higher States of Consciousness, Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland, 1977.

Global EEG Coherence during Experience of the TM-Sidhis; Correlations between High EEG Coherence, Higher States of Consciousness, Experience of the TM-Sidhis, and Creativity.

103. ORME-JOHNSON, D. W., and GRANIERI, B. The effects of the Age of Enlightenment Governor Training Courses on field independence, creativity, intelligence, and behavioral flexibility. Centre for the Study of Higher States of Consciousness, Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland, 1977.

Increased Field Independence (Growth of a More Stable Internal Frame of Reference, Increased Perceptual Acuity); Increased Creativity--Increased Figural Fluency and Originality; Increased Intelligence; Increased Behavioral Flexibility Increased Psychomotor Speed and Motor-Cognitive Flexibility (Findings Indicate a Reversal of the Aging Process).

104. CLEMENTS, G., and MILSTEIN, S. L. Auditory thresholds in advanced participants in the Transcendental Meditation program. Department of Experimental Psychology, Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland, and Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Universite du Québec, Montreal-Gamelin, Québec, Canada, 1977.

Greatly Improved Auditory Thresholds.